REMINDER – PCORI Fees Due July 31, 2019



The ACA imposes a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) fee for all medical plans* ending on or after Oct. 1, 2012, and before Oct. 1, 2019.

If the plan is fully insured, the insurance carrier pays the fee on behalf of the plan sponsor (employer). If the plan is self-insured, the plan sponsor has the obligation to file Form 720 with the IRS by 7/31/2019.

NOTE: Health reimbursement arrangements (HRAs) are considered a self-insured health plan and are subject to PCORI fees. When an employer has an HRA with a fully insured medical plan, it’s considered two separate plans. The carrier pays the PCORI fee for the medical plan and the plan sponsor pays the fee for the HRA. When the employer has an HRA with a self-insured medical plan, they may be treated as one plan for purposes of calculating the PCORI fee.  

*PCORI Fees do not apply to

  • Plans providing HIPAA-excepted benefits e.g. stand-alone dental, vision, health FSAs (if other group health coverage is available and the employer contributes $500 or less)
  • Health Savings Accounts (HSAs)
  • Wellness programs, EAPs, disease management programs that do not provide significant benefits for medical care
  • Stop-loss insurance policies

Calculating the fee:

The amount of PCORI fees due for a self-insured medical plan is based upon the average number of covered lives (i.e. employees, dependents, COBRA participants, and covered retirees) under the self-insured medical plan and the applicable ERISA plan year (see table below).

The amount of PCORI fees due for an HRA is based upon the average number of covered employees (not belly buttons) under the HRA and the applicable plan or policy year.

Plan Year

Fee per average covered life

When fee must be paid

February 1, 2017 through January 31, 2018


July 31, 2019

March 1, 2017, through February 28, 2018


July 31, 2019

April 1, 2017 through March 31, 2018


July 31, 2019

May 1, 2017 through April 30, 2018


July 31, 2019

June 1, 2017 through May 31, 2018


July 31, 2019

July 1, 2017 through June 30, 2018


July 31, 2019

August 1, 2017 through July 31, 2018


July 31, 2019

September 1, 2017 through August 31, 2018


July 31, 2019

October 1, 2017 through September 30, 2018


July 31, 2019

November 1, 2017 through October 31, 2018


July 31, 2019

December 1, 2017 through November 30, 2018


July 31, 2019

January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2018


July 31, 2019

There are 3 acceptable methods for calculating the average number of covered lives:

  1. Actual Count Method – A plan sponsor may determine the average number of lives covered under a plan for a plan year by adding the totals of lives covered for each day of the play year and dividing that total by the total number of days in the plan year.
  2. Snapshot Method – A plan sponsor may determine the average number of lives covered under an applicable self-insured health plan for a plan year based on the total number of lives covered on one date (or more dates if an equal number of dates is used in each quarter) during the first, second or third month of each quarter, and dividing that total by the number of dates on which a count was made.
  3. Form 5500 Method – An eligible plan sponsor may determine the average number of lives covered under a plan for a plan year based on the number of participants reported on the Form 5500, Annual Return/Report of Employee Benefit Plan, or the Form 5500-SF, Short Form Annual Return/Report of Small Employee Benefit Plan.

Once the average number is calculated, Form 720 is what is used to report and pay to the IRS the amount of the PCORI fee due.

Some tips for completing Form 720 for PCORI fees:

An employer/plan sponsor needs to complete:

  • Company information and quarter ending “June 2019” (e.g. for 2018 plan year filing) – although the fee is paid annually, the tax period for the fee is the 2nd quarter of the year
  • Part II, IRS No. 133 Applicable self-insured health plans
    • Column (a), row (c) if plan ended before October 1, 2018, – enter “Avg. number of lives covered for self-insured health plans”


    • Column (a) row (d) if plan ended on or after October 1, 2018 and before October 1, 2019 – enter “Avg. number of lives covered for self-insured health plans”


    • Column (c) – enter total Fee (lives x $)
  • Part II, Line 2 – enter Total Tax (from calculation in IRS No. 133)
  • Part III, Line 3 – enter Total Tax (from Part II, Line 2)
  • Part III, Line 10 – enter Balance Due (from Part III, Line 3)
  • Signature section
  • Payment voucher with “2nd Quarter” checked,
    • Send the form, payment voucher, and check to:
      Department of the Treasury
      Internal Revenue Service
      Cincinnati, OH 45999-0009

July 31, 2020 will be the final year for paying PCORI fees under the current ACA Risk & Market Stabilization Programs for plan years ending before October 1, 2019.


Plan Year Fee per average covered life When fee must be paid
February 1, 2018 through January 31, 2019 $2.45 July 31, 2020
March 1, 2018, through February 28, 2019 $2.45 July 31, 2020
April 1, 2018 through March 31, 2019 $2.45 July 31, 2020
May 1, 2018 through April 30, 2019 $2.45 July 31, 2020
June 1, 2018 through May 31, 2019 $2.45 July 31, 2020
July 1, 2018 through June 30, 2019 $2.45 July 31, 2020
August 1, 2018 through July 31, 2019 $2.45 July 31, 2020
September 1, 2018 through August 31, 2019 $2.45 July 31, 2020
October 1, 2018 through September 30, 2019 $2.45 July 31, 2020
November 1, 2018 and all following renewals Fee expires for plans ending before 10/1/2019. No further payments required.

Health savings account (HSA) eligibility is often misunderstood


IRS Publication 969 outlines the rules for one to be eligible for an HSA. To be eligible one must:

  1. Be covered under a high deductible health plan (HDHP), on the first day of the month.
  2. Have no other health coverage except what is permitted under “Other health coverage” (also defined in the publication)
  3. Not be enrolled in Medicare.
  4. Not be claimed as a dependent on someone else’s tax return.

Of these four eligibility rules, there is often confusion around item #2. Many do not connect “other health coverage” with health FSAs/HRAs.

Employees enrolling in their employer’s general purpose (i.e. can be used for medical expenses) health FSA or HRA or an employee’s spouse being enrolled in their employer’s health FSA, generally disqualifies an employee from making or receiving HSA contributions for the entire plan year.

Likewise, if there are funds left in an employee’s health FSA at the end of the FSA plan year and there is a:

  • grace period (i.e. up to an additional 2 ½ month period after the FSA plan year ends when expenses may be incurred) an employee is not eligible to make or receive HSA contributions until the first of the month after the grace period is over.
  • carryover provision (i.e. permitting up to $500 of the unspent FSA balance to be used in the next plan year) an employee will be ineligible to make or receive HSA contributions for the entire plan year.

There are ways for a health FSA or HRA to be designed (e.g. post-deductible or limited-purpose) so it’s compatible with an HSA and there are also ways for employers to ensure employees don’t lose HSA eligibility for the following year (e.g. if FSA has a carryover provision and an employee elects an HDHP, the balance automatically transfers into a limited purpose FSA), so it’s important to work with your benefits consultant and FSA administrator to ensure employer-provided benefits don’t become “gotcha’s” for your employees.

Don’t let it bite you!


If an employer is subject to COBRA (COBRA generally applies to all private-sector group health plans maintained by employers that have at least 20 employees on more than 50 percent of its typical business days in the previous calendar year) they must offer their employees (and enrolled dependents)  an opportunity to elect to continue the same health coverage they had on the date of the triggering event.

A health reimbursement arrangement (HRA) by definition is a “group health plan” and if the employee’s coverage consisted of the employer’s group health plan combined with an HRA plan, then the same combination must be offered under COBRA when they experience a COBRA qualifying event (e.g. termination of employment).

How do you determine the COBRA premium?

There is little guidance on the subject, but the IRS has stated the applicable premium can be calculated either on:

  • the basis of past cost, or
  • an actuarial basis

The applicable premium under an HRA may not be based on a qualified beneficiary’s reimbursement amounts available from the HRA. 

The IRS has not issued specific guidance on how to determine the applicable premium under either method. However, in my experience:

Basis of past cost: When there is history (i.e. not the first year for the HRA) the premium usually is based on past claims experience of participants and in general, it reflects the cost to the employer of administering the HRA.  It’s “blended” so it’s the same for all HRA qualified beneficiaries regardless of their account balance. For example, if the annual funding is $1,200 but employees only use $600 on average, the monthly COBRA premium is $50 (600/12) + the permitted 2% administrative fee.​

An actuarial basis: If it’s the first year the employer is offering the HRA, an actuarial method is used and an employer must make a reasonable determination as to what utilization is likely. What’s reasonable? That is a facts/circumstances determination, (e.g. how high is the deductible, is it a first dollar HRA) with the calculation best being left up to the experts (i.e. HRA Third Party Administrator (TPA), licensed actuary) and even then, there may be different logic on what utilization average is reasonable.  However for most, their TPA may be able to provide some general utilization trends based on similar plan designs as a benchmark to help make an estimate.

Example: Post-deductible HDHP compatible HRA, similar plan designs employees who participate in the HRA spend 30% of available HRA dollars. An annual $3,000 HRA contribution is provided.

  • $3,000 x 30% (.3) = $900
  • $900 ÷12 (months) = $75
  • $75 x 2% (COBRA admin fees) = $76.50

Regardless of what method used, the HRA premiums must be calculated in the same fashion as the existing COBRA rules (calculated each year, prior to the 12-month determination period and different HRA COBRA premiums may not be charged to different beneficiaries.)

There are penalties for failing to offer COBRA to HRA participants….don’t let it bite you!